The reduction in the Federal income tax rate for C corporations, from a maximum of 35-percent to a flat 21-percent, along with several other changes made by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Act”) that generally reflect a pro-C corporation bias, have caused the owners of many pass-through entities (“PTEs”) to reconsider the continuing status of such entities as S corporations, partnerships, and sole proprietorships.
Among the factors being examined by owners and their advisers are the following:
- the PTE is not itself a taxable entity, and the maximum Federal income rate applicable to its individual owners on their pro rata share of a PTE’s ordinary operating income is 37-percent[i], as compared to the 21-percent rate for a C corporation;
- the owners of a PTE may be able to reduce their Federal tax rate to as low as 29.6-percent if they can take advantage of the “20-percent of qualified business income deduction”;
- a PTE’s distribution of income that has already been taxed to its owners is generally not taxable[ii], while a C corporation’s distribution of its after-tax earnings will generally be taxable to its owners at a Federal rate of 23.8%, for an effective combined corporate and shareholder rate of 39.8%;
- the capital gain from the sale of a PTE’s assets will generally not be taxable to the PTE[iii], and will generally be subject to a Federal tax rate of 20-percent in the hands of its owners[iv], while the same transaction by a C corporation, followed by a liquidating distribution to its shareholders, will generate a combined tax rate of 39.8%.[v]
The application of these considerations to the unique facts circumstances of a particular business may cause its owners to arrive at a different conclusion than will the owners of another business that appears to be similarly situated.
Even within a single business, there may be disagreement among its owners as to which form of business organization, or which tax status, would optimize the owners’ economic benefit, depending upon their own individual tax situation and appetite.[vi]
In the past, this kind of disagreement in the context of a closely held business has often resulted in litigation of the kind that spawned the discovery issue described below. The changes made by the Act are certain to produce more than their share of similar intra-business litigation as owners disagree over the failure of their business to make or revoke certain tax elections, as well as its failure to reorganize its “corporate” structure.
A Taste of Things to Come?
Corporation was created to invest in the development, production, and sale of a product. Among its shareholders was a limited partnership (“LP”), of which Plaintiff was the majority owner.
Plaintiff asserted that Corporation’s management (“Defendants”) had breached their fiduciary duty to LP and the other shareholders. This claim was based upon the fact that Corporation was a C corporation and, as such, its dividend distributions to LP were taxable to LP’s members, based upon their respective ownership interest of LP.[vii]
Plaintiff claimed that this “double taxation” of Corporation’s earnings – once to Corporation and again upon its distribution as a dividend to its shareholders – had cost the business and its owners millions of dollars over the years, was “unnecessary,” had reduced the value of LP, and could have been avoided if Corporation had been converted into an S corporation, at which point LP would have distributed its shares of Corporation stock to its members, who were individuals.
Plaintiff stated that it had made repeated requests to Defendants to “eliminate this waste,” but to no avail.
Thus, one of the forms of relief requested by Plaintiff was “[p]ermanent injunctive relief compelling the Defendants to take all appropriate actions necessary to eliminate the taxable status of [Corporation] that results in an unnecessary level of taxation on distributions to the limited partners of [LP].”
Defendants asked the Court to compel Plaintiff to produce Plaintiff’s tax returns for any tax year as to which Plaintiff claimed to have suffered damages based upon Corporation’s tax status.
Defendants asserted that, in order to measure any damages that were suffered by Plaintiff by reason of Corporation’s status, Defendants needed certain information regarding Plaintiff’s taxes, including Plaintiff’s “tax rate, deductions, credits and the like.”
Plaintiff responded that their “tax returns have no conceivable relevance to any aspect of this case.” Among other reasons, Plaintiff asserted that the action was brought derivatively on behalf of LP such that Plaintiff’s personal tax returns were not germane.
Defendants countered that, even if Plaintiff’s claims were asserted derivatively, the tax returns nevertheless were relevant since Plaintiff was a member of LP, the entity on whose behalf the claims were made.
The Court’s Decision
According to the Court, tax returns in the possession of a taxpayer are not immune from civil discovery. It noted, however, that courts generally are “reluctant to order the production of personal financial documents and have imposed a heightened standard for the discovery of tax returns.”
The Court explained that a party seeking to compel production of tax returns in civil cases must meet a two-part test; specifically, it must demonstrate that:
- the returns are relevant to the subject matter of the action; and
- there is a compelling need for the returns because the information contained therein is not otherwise readily obtainable.
Limited partnerships, the Court continued, “are taxed as ‘pass-through’ entities, do not pay any income tax, but instead file information returns and reports to each partner on his or her pro-rata share of all income, deductions, gains, losses, credits and other items.” The partner then reports those items on his or her individual income tax return. “The limited partnership serves as a conduit through which the income tax consequences of a project or enterprise are passed through to the individual partners.”
The Court found that Plaintiff’s tax returns were relevant to the claims asserted. The crux of Plaintiff’s argument regarding Corporation’s status, the Court stated, was that LP’s partners, including Plaintiff, were subject to “double taxation” and were thereby damaged.
The Court also found that Defendants had established a compelling need. The Court was satisfied that, in order for Defendants to ascertain whether or not Plaintiff, who owned a majority interest in LP, would have paid less tax if Corporation had been converted to an S corporation, Plaintiff had to produce their tax returns to Defendants. The tax returns would disclose, among other things, Plaintiff’s tax rate, deductions and credits that affected the tax due by Plaintiff.
Furthermore, the Court continued, Plaintiff failed to demonstrate that there were alternative sources from which to obtain the information. “While the party seeking discovery of the tax returns bears the burden of establishing relevance, the party resisting disclosure should bear the burden of establishing alternative sources for the information.”
Any concerns that existed regarding the private nature of the information contained in the tax returns could be addressed, the Court stated, by making the tax returns subject to the terms of the “stipulation and order of confidentiality” previously entered in the case.[viii]
Accordingly, the Court granted Defendants’ motion.
What’s Good for the Goose?
For years, oppressed or disgruntled shareholders and partners have often found in the tax returns of the business, of which they are owners, the clues, leads, or circumstantial evidence that help support their claims of mismanagement or worse by those in control of the business.
As a result of the Act, it is likely that some non-controlling owners will find cause for questioning or challenging the “choice of entity” decisions made on behalf of the business by its controlling owners.[ix]
In some cases, their concerns will be validated by what turn out to be true instances of oppression intended to cause economic harm and, perhaps, to force out the intended target.
In others, however, the controlling owner’s decision will have been reached only after a lot of due diligence, including financial modelling and consulting with tax advisers. In such cases, the controlling owner may want to examine the complaining party’s tax return, as in the Court’s decision described above, so as to ascertain whether the loss claimed was actually suffered.
It bears repeating, though, that even if the tax return information may be relevant to the controlling owner’s defense, there is a judicial bias against the disclosure of such information that is manifested in the application of “a heightened standard for the discovery of tax returns.” As stated earlier, the requesting party has to demonstrate that there is a “strong necessity” for the returns, and that the return information is not readily obtainable from other sources.
In the end, the best course of action for the “choice-of-entity” decision-maker, and their best defense against any claims of oppression or mismanagement, is to demonstrate that they acted reasonably and responsibly; they should thoroughly document the decision-process, and explain the basis for their decision. With that, a potential owner-claimant would be hard-pressed to second-guess them with any reasonable likelihood of success.
[i] If the PTE’s business is a passive activity with respect to the owner, the 3.8% Federal surtax on net investment income may also apply, bumping their maximum Federal tax rate up from 37% to 40.8%.
[ii] Because of the upward basis adjustment to the owner’s partnership interest or S corp. stock resulting from the inclusion of the PTE’s income or gain in the owner’s gross income.
[iii] There are exceptions; for example, the built-in gains tax for S corps. https://www.taxlawforchb.com/2013/09/s-corp-sales-built-in-gain-and-2013/ . In addition, the gain from the sale of certain assets may generate ordinary income that would be taxable to the PTE’s owners at a Federal rate of 37%; for example, depreciation recapture.
[iv] But see endnote i, supra.
[v] The operating income and capital gain of a C corporation are taxed at the same rate; there is no preferential Federal capital gain rate as in the case of individuals.
[vi] You may have heard your own clients debating the pros and cons of spinning off “divisions” so as to position themselves for maximizing the deduction based on qualified business income. All this before the issuance of any guidance by the IRS (which is expected later this month), though the Service intimated last month that taxpayers may not be pleased with its position regarding such spin-offs.
[vii] See the third bullet point, above.
[viii] Such an order may be used in cases requiring the exchange, as part of the discovery process, of what the parties to the law suit believe is confidential information.
[ix] For example, a shareholder of an S corporation that does not make distributions, who is not employed by the business, who is a passive investor in the business, and whose pro rata share of the corporation’s income is subject to federal tax at a rate of 40.8%, may wonder why the controlling shareholder does not agree to revoke the “S” election, to at least start making tax distributions.